What are the water purification methods

What are the water purification methods

There are many methods for the purification of water available today. Some are traditional and more trusted methods and some are more modern. Traditional methods are not as effective as we would believe them to be as science has proven that our water does contain a lot of harmful mixtures that traditional purification does not take care of. Most modern methods also do not make water 100% safe to drink and so, we need to employ a combination of processes to ensure the purity of your drinking water to keep your family safe and sound.

Listed below are a few purification methods:

1. Simple Sedimentation

A particle's rate of sinking into water is influenced by the water's viscosity and density as well as the particle's volume, form, and relative density. A particle will sink more quickly in warm water than in cold water because warm water has less viscosity. The specific gravity of suspended inorganic particles in water ranges from 2.65 for discrete sand grains to roughly 1.03 for flocculated muck particles. Floating organic materials have a specific gravity that ranges from around 1.0 to about 1.4.

Depending on the quantity of water entrained in the floc, chemical flocs have a comparable range of specific gravities. For the suspended particles in the water to settle out, conditions must be created during water purification by sedimentation.

Storage tanks function as basic sedimentation tanks, although they are not always reliable for providing the necessary clarification due to density currents, wind-induced disturbances, and other variables. Sedimentation pools are often made of reinforced concrete and can have a rectangular or circular form. They are built specifically to remove suspended debris from the water. The average amount of time needed for the water to pass through the basin is known as the retention period. The basin should be correctly built to achieve a fairly high proportion of elimination of the suspended particles.

2. Reverse Osmosis 

In the past, RO water purification was primarily used in industrial and commercial settings. However, RO purificatin has recently emerged as the most dependable and widely used technique for purifying drinking water in homes. Water is forced across a semipermeable membrane during the reverse osmosis process to remove impurities. Almost all of the dissolved salts (between 95% and 99%) are left behind in the reject stream of reverse osmosis by utilizing a high-pressure pump to add pressure on the saline side of the RO and push the water past the semi-permeable RO membrane. The feed water's salt content determines how much pressure is needed. More pressure is needed to overcome the osmotic pressure.

Permeate (or product) water is the demineralized or deionized form of desalinated water. The reject stream is the water flow that contains the concentrated pollutants that were not removed by the RO membrane. Salts and other pollutants are not permitted to pass through to the semi-permeable cell wall as the input water enters the filter media under tension (enough pressure to resolve osmotic pressure), and they are discharged through the discarding stream, which goes to the drain or, in some cases, can be recirculated into the feed water supply to be recirculated through the RO membrane to save water.

The output is the water that passes through the RO system and typically has 95% to 99% of the total dissolved solids removed from it. It's crucial to realize that a RO system uses cross-filtration as opposed to traditional filtration, in which the pollutants are gathered within the filter material.

With crossover filtration, the water is filtered in one direction and polluted in the other when the solution flows through or crosses the filter. Cross-flow filtration prevents the build-up of impurities by allowing water to flush away contaminant build-up and enough turbulence to maintain the membrane surface pristine.

3. UV Purification

UV radiation is used to purify the water, and it works by essentially destroying the DNA of the bacteria or microorganisms so that they can no longer reproduce. These equipment eliminates bacteria in the water by neutralizing them with UV rays. Additionally, UV radiation doesn’t cause water's chemical composition to change. As a result, water that has been cleaned by UV rays doesn't havwatere any dangerous bacteria and keeps its natural flavor.

Modern water filters emit UV light at a specified level thanks to low-pressure mercury vapor lamps. The mercury vapor lights are mounted in a way that prevents them from coming into contact with water. However, this method falls short when it comes to purging the water of physical contaminants and heavy metals.

4. Distillation

This is more of a scientific process where water is boiled, and the water vapor is collected. This vapor is connected to a condenser, which then collects the water for drinking. Although it seems like a legitimate procedure, the biggest drawback is that the purifying process is cumbersome. It treats bacteria and germs, but it is also an expensive endeavor.

5. Chlorination

To purify water before ingesting, one might easily use liquid household chlorine. It is important to always remember to use the right ratio or amount of water to the appropriate chlorine content. Never go above the prescribed amount of chlorine that needs to be added to water to treat it. The only drawback to this procedure is that you will have an odd aftertaste and odor. Adding chlorine to the water and prolonged exposure to chlorine may be bad for health and may lead to life-threatening conditions.

About Livpure

If you are looking for a reliable company that manufactures water purifiers and can keep your drinking water safe at home, your best bet is Livpure. Livpure embodies the spirit of the SAR group and was born out of the company's enthusiasm for the environment, sustainability, and creating a safe world for the next generation. Livpure has made a name for itself in India as one of the most dependable producers of some of the best water purifiers available. It is the result of many years of development and research, and it is designed to provide water purifiers to millions of people. To deliver clean drinking water to every Indian consumer, we began by researching cutting-edge water purifiers.

Also Read: What is water purification in simple words?

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