There is abundant water on Earth, and yet there is water scarcity. The catch is that clean drinking water is scarce, and all you get through pipelines and taps in India are unfit to consume.
Various chemicals and pesticides contaminate tap water, and even the lining of the pipelines contribute to this issue. Urban and semi-urban areas in India face this more significant issue due to the lack of clean water bodies and even rainfall.
Continuous consumption of unclean water can lead to serious health diseases. Therefore, it is wise to invest in water purifiers to stay healthy. However, there are different water purifiers used in India. Let us analyse them one by one.
Types of water purification
It is crucial to purify tap or pipeline water. You can suffer from water-borne diseases because of the contaminants in the water. Further, there are different ways in which we can purify water.
Let us look at different water purifiers used in the house and the ways of water purification to understand the mechanism correctly.
The membrane technology filters out dissolved impurities, and this method has three types.
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
In reverse osmosis, membrane technology removes dissolved salts, impurities, and germs from the water. The semi-permeable membrane lets only water pass and blocks microbes, chemicals, and dissolved salts that are not visible to the naked eye. However, it changes the taste of water.
Moreover, the RO membrane is best to purify water with high TDS levels and for maximum contaminated water.
Ultra Violet (UV)
The Ultra Violet purification method uses ultraviolet radiation to kill germs, bacteria, etc. It can kill about 99% of germs and contaminants. This process involves a mercury lamp that emits a short UV wave.
The bacteria and viruses lose the capacity to reproduce and die eventually. However, the dead bodies remain in the water and need to be removed by a different process.
Ultra Filtration (UF)
The Ultra Filtration – membrane technology uses a more permeable membrane with larger pores to remove microbes and harmful chemicals. However, it cannot remove dissolved salts and solids owing to bigger pores.
It is best to purify water with moderate TDS levels.
There are three types of carbon-based water purification methods -
These are block-shaped filters made up of crushed carbon particles. They are bigger and have a large surface area. If the water flow is fast, these blocks are the most efficient. The best carbon block in the market is fibredyne carbon block because it has greater sediment holding capacity.
Granulated carbon technology uses small grains of carbon to purify water. Since their size is small, they are less effective than carbon blocks.
Activated carbon allows the chemical bonding of water molecules. This eliminates the chlorine from water. Consequently, the taste and water odour get enhanced. However, activated carbon cannot eliminate nitrates, microbes, sodium and fluorides.
Ion-based purification process
This method uses ions to purify water. There are three sub-types under this process.
In ion exchange, resin replaces harmful ions with less harmless ones. This is ideal for softening hard water because it can replace calcium and magnesium with sodium (salt). However, you must ensure to charge the resins with ions for more extended and efficient use.
This process includes ion exchange in the water to remove salts and other ions. It attacks and eliminates contaminants without any electric charge. However, deionisation cannot remove bacteria and viruses.
Water softeners employ ion exchange mechanism to replace calcium and magnesium with sodium.
Types of water purifiers used in India
There are four types of different water purifiers used in India based on the above purification methods.
RO Water Purifier
The RO water purifier removes chlorine, nitrates and metal particles like arsenic, lead, fluoride, etc. In RO purifiers, the water pump forces hard water to pass through the RO membrane. Consequently, clean water with minerals is collected for drinking and the polluted water is let out of a pipe.
The RO water purifier works like magic on hard water. It can easily convert any water to soft water. In cities and semi-urban areas, water travels through pipelines, wells, municipal pipelines, etc.
The TDS levels are alarmingly high. Thus, people prefer the RO purifier in such situations to improve the quality and taste of water. Further, the RO water purifier is wall-mounted or can be placed under the sink.
Livpure’s Zinger Copper Hot water purifier undergoes six stages of water purification before you can consume it. You can get instant hot water and 6.5-litre storage.
UF (Ultra Filtration) Water Purifier
UF water purifier utilises hollow fibres of a membrane to separate contaminants from water. It blocks large particles and is less effective than RO water purifiers.
Moreover, UF purifiers are unable to remove chemicals from the water. Hence, you can find these water filters where the TDS level is low.
Activated Carbon Water Purifier
An activated carbon water purifier works best on pesticides and heavy metals like lead and arsenic. It also removes chlorine from water and protects the carbon membrane for a more extended period.
Further, you can get an improved taste and smell of water.
UV Water Purifier
In UV water purifiers, water passes through a tiny UV lamp. This process kills bacteria, pathogens, and even cysts (if present). However, as mentioned above, the microorganisms in their dead state remain in the water. Another process can remove those bodies from the water.
Hence, this works best for water with a low TDS level. However, the efficiency of these purifiers is higher than UF, activated carbon and RO purifiers.
How to choose water purifier for home?
- The best purifier for home is the RO + UV purifiers. They work best for urban residents since the TDS level is usually high.
- If you live in an area where the TDS level is low to medium, you can go for UV or UF.
- If the TDS levels are more than medium but not alarmingly high, you can buy an activated carbon water purifier.
You can easily find some of the best water purifiers in India on Livpure’s official website.
Millions of people in India are at risk of dying from water-borne diseases. Contaminated water has led to an increase in cases like diarrhoea and typhoid. With various water purifiers available today, you can easily choose the best pick based on your needs and water supply.
This is essential because consuming water will make or break your life. Clean water will keep you healthy and add years to your and your family’s life. Hence, invest in a water purifier for a hygienic life at the earliest.